Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2019, Page: 26-31
Kasem Metaphoric Extensions of yi ‘Eye’ and yuu ‘Head’ Expressions
Umar Abdul-Hakim, Department of Gur-Gonja Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana, West Africa
Emmanuel Dogbey, Department of Ewe Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana, West Africa
Received: Jan. 10, 2019;       Accepted: Mar. 22, 2019;       Published: Apr. 18, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijla.20190701.16      View  38      Downloads  10
This paper studies the metaphorical extensions of the human body parts of yi ‘eye’ and yuu ‘head’ among the Kasena. We examine how these expressions are used to conceptualise a broader view of the people and whether these metaphorical expressions have a specific style and structure. We also argue that yi ‘eye’ and yuu ‘head’ as in the expressions collected are polysemic in Kasem. Data for the study were collected from Kasem level 200 and 300 students of the College of Languages Education, Ajumako of the University of Education, Winneba and our native speaker intuition as well. The conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) is adopted for the study. The analysis clearly shows that these expressions are employed as instruments in the expressing of trait or character of individuals. In terms of structure, it is worth mentioning that these expressions have specific structure. The body part is obligatory and then followed by a verb or an adjective to make the structure grammatical. However, if the verb or adjective precedes the human body part the structure becomes not meaningful. It is further established that the two expressions, lexicalise expressions of emotion and perception.
Kasena, yi ‘Eye’, yuu ‘Head’, Lexicalise, Polysemic
To cite this article
Umar Abdul-Hakim, Emmanuel Dogbey, Kasem Metaphoric Extensions of yi ‘Eye’ and yuu ‘Head’ Expressions, International Journal of Literature and Arts. Vol. 7, No. 1, 2019, pp. 26-31. doi: 10.11648/j.ijla.20190701.16
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Agyekum, K. (2013). The pragmatics of ‘mouth’ metaphor in Akan. Ghana Journal of Linguistics, 2(1), 1-17.
Agyekum, K. (2015). Ani, ‘eye’ metaphorical expressions in Akan. Journal of West African Languages 42 (I) 1-29.
Awedoba, A. K. (2000). An Introduction to Kasena Society and Culture through their Proverbs. Lanham: MD: University Press of America.
Awedoba, A. K.(2002). Studies in Kasem Phonetics and Phonology. Legon: Institute of African Studies.
Bonvillain, N. (1993). Language, culture and communication: The meaning of message. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Carol & Kates. (1980). Pragmatics and Semantics. New York: Cornell University.
Cruse, A. (2004). Meaning in language: an introduction to semantics and pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dzokoto, V. A. & Sumie, O. (2006). Happiness in the eye and heart: Somatic referencing in West African emotion lexica. Journal of Black Psychology 32 (2). 117-140.
Enfield, N. J & Anna, W. (2002). Introduction: The body in description of emotion. Pragmatics and Cognition Special Issue 10 (1-2). 1-25.
Evans, V. & Green, M. (2006). Cognitive linguistics: An introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Kövecses, Z. (2002). Metaphor: A practical approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lakoff, G. & Mark, J. (1980b). The metaphorical structure of the human conceptual system. Cognitive science 4 (2). 195-208.
Lakoff, G. & Mark, J. (1980c). Metaphors we live by. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.
Leech, G. N. (1969). A Linguistic Guide to English poetry. Hong Kong: Longman Group Ltd.
Naden, A. T. (1988). ‘The Gur Languages’ The Languages of Ghana ed. M. E. Kropp Dakubu, Kegan Paul International IAI pp 12-49.
Na’imah, (2015). What about Metaphors in “The snows of Kilimanjaro and other Stories” Written by Ernest Hemingway. Journal of Education and Practice. Vol. 6, No. 8, 148-153.
Semino, E. (2008). Metaphor in discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sweester, E. (1990). From etymology to pragmatics: Metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure. Newcastle Britain: Athenaeum Press Ltd. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511620904.
Yu, N. (2004). Metaphor from body and culture. In R. W. Gibbs, Jr (Ed.). The Cambridge hand book of metaphor and thought (pp. 247-262). New York: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1016/CBO9780511816802.016.
Browse journals by subject