Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2015, Page: 42-48
Waiting for Godot: A Marxist Study
Javed Akhter, Department of English Literature and Linguistics, University of Balochistan Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan
Khair Muhammad, Department of English Literature and Linguistics, University of Balochistan Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan
Naila Naz, Department of English Literature and Linguistics, University of Balochistan Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan
Received: Jun. 2, 2015;       Accepted: Jun. 16, 2015;       Published: Jul. 2, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijla.20150304.12      View  8922      Downloads  203
Abstract
This study tends to focus on the different facets and meanings of ‘’Waiting for Godot’’ by Samuel Beckett. The different occurrences of conflicting and contradictory meanings within the text of the play show existence of the late modernist bourgeois ideology. Based on the theoretical concern of the discussions of Post-Structuralist Marxist theorists Louis Althusser and Pierre Macherey, the main concern of the discussion concentrates on the theory of decentred or disparate text, expounded by Pierre Macherey in his book, “A Theory of Literary Production” (1978). This paper asks how the significant gaps, silences, absences and non-saids in the text of “Waiting for Godot” reflect the presence of the late modernist bourgeois ideology. This paper aims to reflect on the significance of ideology to articulate Post-Structuralist Marxist theory of decentred or disparate text. To make vocal the non-saids of Samuel Beckett’s text, the theory and methodology, I seek in this research paper is Post-Structuralist Althusserian Hermeneutics that helps to find conflict, disparity and contradiction of meaning within the text and between the text and its ideological content. It also helps to make speak and vocal the silences and non-saids of the play with conceptual framework of Post-Structuralist Althusserian theory of decentred or disparate text. The study would analyse how the ideological processes keep the author silent at certain stages in trying to tell the truth in his own way. It is hoped that this paper would enable the readers and students of literature to theoretical reading of the literary texts, making vocal the unspoken portions of them. They are also expected to find different, conflicting and contradictory meanings within the text of “Waiting for Godot” and between the text and its ideological content.
Keywords
Post-Structuralist Althusserism, the Late Modernist Bourgeois Ideology, Text, Disparity and Contradiction of Meanings, Themes of Existentialism
To cite this article
Javed Akhter, Khair Muhammad, Naila Naz, Waiting for Godot: A Marxist Study, International Journal of Literature and Arts. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2015, pp. 42-48. doi: 10.11648/j.ijla.20150304.12
Reference
[1]
Akhter, Javed. (2015) Waiting for Godot: A Deconstructive Study. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies. ISSN 2356-5926, Vol. 2, Issue 1, June 2015, pp.42-63.
[2]
Althusser, Louis. (1969). For Marx. Paris, France: The Penguin Press.
[3]
Althusser, Louis. (1971). Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. Trans. Ben Brewster. London, Great Britain: New Left Books.
[4]
Arianrhod, Robyn. (2003). Einstein’s Heroes: Imagining the World through Language of Mathematics. Australia: University of Queensland Press.
[5]
Azam, Azmi. (2014), Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot: A Post-modern Perspective. International Journal of English and Education. ISSN: 2278-4012, Volume: 3, Issue 2, April 2014, pp. 504-507.
[6]
Bair, Deirdre. (1993). Samuel Beckett: A Biography. New York: Simon and Schuster.
[7]
Becket, Samuel. (1956). Waiting for Godot. London, Great Britain: Faber and Faber.
[8]
Belsey, Catherine. (1980). Critical Practice. London, Great Britain: Routledge.
[9]
Bloom, Harold. (ed.), Samuel Beckett: Modern Critical Views. New York, USA: Chelsea House Publishers.
[10]
Chatterjee, Abhinaba. (2013). Camus’ Absurdity in Beckett’s Play: Waiting for Godot in Lapis Lazuli: An international literary journal (LLILJ), Vol. 3/No.2/ autumn, pp.196-205.
[11]
D. Noble. (Ed.), Critical Insights. (pp.75-93). California, USA: Salem Press.
[12]
Diamond, Elin. (2000). Re: Blau, Butler, Beckett, and Politics of Seeing In the Drama Review, 44, 4, pp. 31-34, New York, USA: University of Technology.
[13]
Eagleton, Terry. (2003). Sweet Violence. London, Great Britain: Blackwell Publishing.
[14]
Esslin, Martin. (1980). the Theatre of the Absurd. New York, USA: The Penguin Books.
[15]
Esslin, Martin. (1960). the Theatre of the Absurd in the Tulane Drama Review, Vol 4. No. 4. (May 1960).
[16]
Esslin, Martin. (Ed.), (1980). Samuel Beckett: Twentieth Century Views. New Delhi, India: Prentice Hall.
[17]
Haney, William S. (2001). Beckett out of His Mind: The Theatre of the Absurd. Studies in Literary Imagination. Georgia: Georgia State University. 34, 2, pp. 39-53.
[18]
Hawkes, D. (1996). Ideology. London, Great Britain: Routledge.
[19]
Hooti, Noorbakhsh, (2011). Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot: A Postmodernist Study in English Language and Literature Study, Vol. I, pp.40-48.
[20]
Jameson, Fredric. (2007). Modernist Papers .London, Great Britain: Verso.
[21]
Jani, Darsha. (2013). Futility, Hopelessness and Meaninglessness: Central Forces Leading towards Absurdity in Beckett’s Waiting for Godot in Lapis Lazuli: An International Literary Journal (LLILJ), Vol. 3/No.2/ Autumn, 2013, pp.96-106.
[22]
Macherey, Pierre. (1978). A Theory of Literary Production. Trans. Geoffrey Wall .London, Great Britain: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
[23]
Rakwal, Komal. (2013). Today’s Fear of Being in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot in Lapis Lazuli: An International Literary Journal (LLILJ), Vol. 3/No. 2. / Autumn, pp.107-114.
[24]
Ruby, Cohn. (Ed.), (1987).Beckett: Waiting for Godot. London, Great Britain: Casebook Series Macmillan Education Ltd.
[25]
Schwab, Gabriele. (1992). “On the Dialectic of Closing and Opening in Endgame”. In Waiting for Godot & Endgame. Ed. Steven Connor. London: Macmillan.
Browse journals by subject